Article In-vivo Studies Molecular Biology Radiobiology Year 2001

Evaluation of apoptosis and micronucleation induced by reactor neutron beams with two different cadmium ratios in total and quiescent cell populations within solid tumors

International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, 2001

Authors:   Shin Masunaga,Koji Ono,Yoshinori Sakurai,Masao Takagaki,Tooru Kobayashi,Yuko Kinashi,Minoru Suzuki
Journal: International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics
Abstract: Purpose: Response of quiescent (Q) and total tumor cells in solid tumors to reactor neutron beam irradiation with two different cadmium (Cd) ratios was examined in terms of micronucleus (MN) frequency and apoptosis frequency, using four different tumor cell lines. Methods and Materials: C57BL mice bearing EL4 tumors, C3H/He mice bearing SCC VII or FM3A tumors, and Balb/c mice bearing EMT6/KU tumors received 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) continuously for 5 days via implanted mini-osmotic pumps to label all proliferating (P) cells. Thirty min after i.p. injection of sodium borocaptate-10B (BSH), or 3 h after oral administration of p-boronophenylalanine-10B (BPA), the tumors were irradiated with neutron beams. The tumors without 10B-compound administration were irradiated with neutron beams or $gamma$-rays. This neutron beam irradiation was performed using neutrons with two different Cd ratios. The tumors were then excised, minced, and trypsinized. The tumor cell suspensions thus obtained were incubated with cytochalasin-B (a cytokinesis blocker), and the MN frequency in cells without BrdU labeling (=Q cells) was determined using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. Meanwhile, for apoptosis assay, 6 h after irradiation, tumor cell suspensions obtained in the same manner were fixed, and the apoptosis frequency in Q cells was also determined with immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. The MN and apoptosis frequencies in total (P+Q) tumor cells were determined from the tumors that were not pretreated with BrdU. Results: Without 10B-compounds, the sensitivity difference between total and Q cells was reduced by neutron beam irradiation. Under our particular neutron beam irradiation condition, relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons was larger in Q cells than in total cells, and the RBE values were larger for low Cd-ratio than high Cd-ratio neutrons. With 10B-compounds, both frequencies were increased for each cell population, especially for total cells. BPA increased both frequencies for total cells more than BSH did. Nevertheless, the sensitivity of Q cells treated with BPA was lower than that of Q cells treated with BSH. Whether based on the MN frequency or the apoptosis frequency, similar results concerning the sensitivity difference between total and Q cells, the values of RBE, and the enhancement effect by the use of 10B-compound were obtained. Conclusion: Apoptosis frequency, as well as the MN frequency, can be applied to our method for measuring the Q cell response to reactor neutron beam irradiation within solid tumor in which the ratio of apoptosis to total cell death is relatively high, as in EL4 tumor. The absolute radiation dose required to achieve the same endpoint for Q cells is much higher than that for total cells when combined with 10B-compound, especially with BPA. {textcopyright} 2001 Elsevier Science Inc.