Article Chemistry Small Boron compounds Year 2019

4-Borono-2- 18 F-fluoro-l-phenylalanine PET for boron neutron capture therapy-oriented diagnosis: overview of a quarter century of research

, 2019

Authors:   Kiichi Ishiwata
Abstract: 4- 10 B-Borono-2- 18 F-fluoro-l-phenylalanine ( 18 F-FBPA) was developed for monitoring the pharmacokinetics of 4- 10 B-borono-l-phenylalanine ( 10 B-BPA) used in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) with positron emission tomography (PET). The tumor-imaging potential of 18 F-FBPA was demonstrated in various animal models. Accumulation of 18 F-FBPA was higher in melanomas than in non-melanoma tumors in animal models and cell cultures. 18 F-FBPA was incorporated into tumors mediated mainly by L-type amino acid transporters in in vitro and in vivo models. Tumoral distribution of 18 F-FBPA was primarily related to the activity of DNA synthesis. 18 F-FBPA is metabolically stable but is incorporated into melanogenesis non-enzymatically. These in vitro and in vivo characteristics of 18 F-FBPA corresponded well to those of 10 B-BPA. Nuclear magnetic resonance and other studies using non-radioactive 19 F- 10/11 B-FBPA also contributed to characterization. The validity and reliability of 18/19 F-FBPA as an in vivo probe of 10 B-BPA were confirmed by comparison of the pharmacokinetics of 18 F-FBPA and 10 B-BPA and direct measurement of both 18 F and 10 B in tumors with various doses of both probes administered by different routes and methods. Clinically, based on the kinetic parameters of dynamic 18 F-FBPA PET, the estimated 10 B-concentrations in tumors with continuous 10 B-BPA infusion were similar to those measured directly in surgical specimens. The significance of 18 F-FBPA PET was verified for the estimation of 10 B-concentration and planning of BNCT. Later 18 F-FBPA PET has been involved in 10 B-BPA BNCT of patients with intractable tumors such as malignant brain tumors, head and neck tumors, and melanoma. Usually a static PET scan is used for screening patients for BNCT, prediction of the distribution and accumulation of 10 B-BPA, and evaluation of treatment after BNCT. In some clinical trials, a tumor-to-normal tissue ratio of 18 F-FBPA > 2.5 was an inclusion criterion for BNCT. Apart from BNCT, 18 F-FBPA was demonstrated to be a useful PET probe for tumor diagnosis in nuclear medicine: better tumor-to-normal brain contrast compared with 11 C-methionine, differentiation of recurrent and radiation necrosis after radiotherapy, and melanoma-preferential uptake. Further progress in 18 F-FBPA studies is expected for more elaborate evaluation of 10 B-concentrations in tumors and normal tissues for successful 10 B-BPA BNCT and for radiosynthesis of 18 F-FBPA to enable higher 18 F-activity amounts and higher molar activities.